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Writing and APA Citation (7th Edition)

In-Text Citation Basics

In-text citations are used within the body of your paper and include the author’s last name or group name and the year the work was published. 

Basic In-Text Citation Styles:

  • Individual author: (Smith, 2020)
  • Group author: (American Psychological Association [APA], 2020)

For more examples of basic in-text citation styles, see Table 8.1 on page 266 in the Publication Manual of the APA (7th ed.). 

Reference Basics

Reference citations are listed alphabetically at the end of your paper, and they correspond with the in-text citations. These citations consist of elements that are arranged in a particular order to make sources more searchable.

The main elements of a reference citation are the author’s name, date the work was published, title of the work, publication information, and the source retrieval information for electronic works such as a DOI or a URL.

Basically, the reference citation answers the questions:

  • Who created it?
  • When was it published?
  • What is it called?
  • Where can it be found?

Below is an image of an article's detailed record in a library database. See how each reference element answers one of these questions.

Identifying reference elements in an article's detailed record in a library database.

 

For examples of reference citations, see Chapter 10 in the Publication Manual of the APA (7th ed.). 

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