American Psychological Association (APA) Style is the writing approach and citation style that is commonly used by disciplines in the behavioral and social sciences.
You need to cite your sources every time you quote, paraphrase or summarize information or an idea from an author's work in your paper.
APA citations include two parts:
The Library strongly encourages students to use the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.) as the primary source for APA citations. You may purchase a copy of this book at the Chamberlain Bookstore or at any major bookseller.
You may have read in the APA Manual that correct references for journal articles must include either a DOI or the URL of the homepage of the journal where the article was published (see the rules starting on page 191, especially the last bullet on the page).
You may also have been instructed by your professor to find the Permalink for an article, and submit it along with your assignment -- even though Permalinks must not be included in your APA references!
The terminology -- URL, DOI, and Permalink -- and figuring out which one is required for which can be confusing! So, below, we've written some explanations to help you sort this all out. In short:
Journal Article, No DOI:
Author, A. A. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, xx, pp-pp. Retrieved from http://xxxxxxxxx
Journal Article, With DOI:
Author, A. A. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, xx, pp-pp. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx
For periodical examples, see pages 198 - 202, Section 7.01 (Entries 1 - 17)
Entire Print Book:
Author, A. A. (Year published). Title of work. Location: Publisher.
Entire eBook, No DOI:
Author, A. A. (Year published). Title of work. Retrieved from http://xxxxxxxxx
Entire eBook, With DOI:
Author, A.A. (Year published). Title of work. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx
For book examples, see pages 202 - 205, Section 7.02 (Entries 18 - 30)
Author, A. (Date). Title of document [Format description]. Retrieved from http://xxxxxxxxx
For website examples, see page 214, Section 7.11. But also look at: https://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2016/11e/writing-website-in-text-citations-and-references.html
Class Materials in Canvas:
For class materials, use rules for websites and the Canvas URL as the Retrieved from URL.
Author, A. A. [Screen name]. (year, month day). Title of video [Video file]. Retrieved from http://xxxxxxxxx
For audiovisual media examples, see pages 209 - 210, Section 7.09 (Entries 49 - 53).
Personal Communication (email, interview, etc.):
Personal communications are not included in the reference list, but they need to be cited within the text.
For personal communication examples, see page 179, Section 6.20.
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